稿件编号:20190610
王文霞,杨亮亮,胡延杰,陈绍志,黄松林.野生动物人工繁育对种群保护影响机制探究[J].世界林业研究,2019,32(6):54~60
野生动物人工繁育对种群保护影响机制探究
A Study of the Influencing Mechanism of Wildlife Captive Breeding on Their Population Conservation
投稿时间:2019-01-22  修订日期:2019-08-20
DOI:10.13348/j.cnki.sjlyyj.2019.0094.y
中文关键词:  野生动物  人工繁育  贸易  野外种群  物种保护
英文关键词:wildlife captive breeding  trade  wild population  species conservation
基金项目:国家林业和草原局森林认证项目"野生动物饲养管理认证调研与绩效跟踪"(2019)。
作者单位E-mail
王文霞 中国林业科学研究院林业科技信息研究所, 北京 100091  
杨亮亮 中国林业科学研究院森林生态环境与保护研究所, 北京 100091  
胡延杰 中国林业科学研究院林业科技信息研究所, 北京 100091 yanjie435@163.com 
陈绍志 中国林业科学研究院林业科技信息研究所, 北京 100091
中国绿色时报社, 北京 100714 
 
黄松林 中国林业科学研究院森林生态环境与保护研究所, 北京 100091  
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中文摘要:
      野生动物及其产品在世界范围内广泛交易,由此引发的偷猎一直是物种保护的主要威胁。现有的干预措施和执法不能完全规避由此造成的物种濒危和灭绝,有专家提出人工繁育可以减轻野生种群压力。基于本文研究发现,只有符合以下条件和标准,野生动物人工养殖才能有益于物种保护:1)合法产品成为替代品且消费者对野生动物没有偏好;2)满足大部分需求且需求不会增加;3)合法产品更具成本效益,以打击黑市价格;4)野生动物养殖不依赖野生种群进行补给;5)没有非法产品混入合法商业贸易。很多野生动物难以满足以上全部条件和标准,因此人工养殖和贸易可能对物种保护产生相反效果。然而,对于某些能够全面满足以上条件的物种,人工繁育可视为种群保护的有力工具。对于这些物种,未来的研究应侧重于合法产品对市场动态的影响、有效执法以及能够区分人工繁殖和野生捕获物种的取证等方面。
英文摘要:
      Wild animal and their products are widely traded around the world, and the consequent poaching has been a main threat to species conservation. Existing interventions and law enforcement cannot completely circumvent the resulting species endangerment and extinction. Some experts have suggested that wildlife captive breeding can alleviate the pressure on their populations. Based on the research in this paper, it is found that wild animal captive breeding can be beneficial to species conservation only if the following criteria and standards are met:1) the legal products become the substitutes and consumers have no preference for wild animals; 2) the most needs and demand are met, and the demand doesn't increase; 3) legal products are more cost-effective, which could hold the black market prices down; 4) wildlife captive breeding does not rely on wild populations for restocking; and 5) no illegal products are mixed into legal commercial trade. Many wild animals are difficult to meet all of the above criteria and indicators, so captive breeding and trade may have the opposite effect on species conservation. However, for some species that can meet the above criteria, their captive breeding can be regarded as a powerful tool for population conservation. For these species, the future research should focus on the impact of legal products on market, effective enforcement, and the forensics that can distinguish captive-bred and wild-caught wildlife.
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