稿件编号:20200316
李汝敏,朱文玉.中日植物新品种法律比较研究[J].世界林业研究,2020,33(3):90~94
中日植物新品种法律比较研究
A Comparative Study of Law About New Plant Varieties Between China and Japan
投稿时间:2019-12-06  修订日期:2020-03-28
DOI:10.13348/j.cnki.sjlyyj.2020.0030.y
中文关键词:  植物新品种|法律|种苗法|特许法|中国|日本
英文关键词:new plant variety|law|seedling act|patent act|China|Japan
基金项目:黑龙江省博士后科研启动基金项目“龙江丝路带建设中的知识产权保护对策研究”(LBH-Q16006)。
作者单位E-mail
李汝敏 东北林业大学文法学院, 哈尔滨 150040  
朱文玉 东北林业大学文法学院, 哈尔滨 150040 3402592@qq.com 
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中文摘要:
      保护植物新品种是维护遗传资源多样性、推动农林业科技创新的重要方式。日本是亚洲最早用法律保护植物新品种的国家,也是亚洲唯一一个经历了《国际植物新品种保护公约》1978年文本转变为1991年文本的国家,对植物新品种保护有着丰富的经验和悠久的历史。文中分析了日本植物新品种相关法律的发展历程,重点对比中日植物新品种相关法律在保护对象、主要授权要件、权利的产生与保护期限、农民特权、品种登记制度和法律责任6个方面的区别,总结日本在植物新品种相关法律中的优势与特色制度,最后立足我国国情对我国植物新品种保护法律的不足提出了完善建议,以期为我国农林业发展提供法律保障。
英文摘要:
      The protection of new plant varieties is an important way to maintain the diversity of genetic resources and promote technology innovation in agriculture and forestry. Japan is the first country in Asia to protect new plant varieties with laws and also the only Asian country to promote the transformation of the UPOV1978 text to the UPOV1991 text. Thus it has rich experiences and a long history in protecting new varieties of plants. This paper analyzes the development process of laws related to new plant varieties in Japan, compares the differences in protection objects, main authorization requirements, generation and protection period of rights, farmers' privileges, variety registration system and legal responsibilities between China and Japan, and then summarizes the advantages and characteristics of Japanese laws on new plant varieties. With an eye on China's national conditions, this paper puts forward suggestions for the gaps of laws on the new plant varieties protection in China, which is expected to provide legal supports for the development of agricultural and forestry industries in China.
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