稿件编号:20150605
宗亦臣,李启岭,郑勇奇.《名古屋议定书》对中国林木遗传资源获取的影响[J].世界林业研究,2015,28(6):23~28
《名古屋议定书》对中国林木遗传资源获取的影响
Impact of Nagoya Protocol on Forest Genetics Resources Access in China
投稿时间:2014-10-29  修订日期:2015-07-01
DOI:10.13348/j.cnki.sjlyyj.2015.0019.y
中文关键词:  名古屋议定书  林木遗传资源  获取  资源利用  资源保护  中国
英文关键词:Nagoya Protocol  forest genetics resources  accessing  resources utilization  resources protection  China
基金项目:国家林业局公益性行业专项重要树种种质资源保存与可持续利用关键技术研究(201204307);国家林业局科技发展中心项目名古屋议定书对我国林业遗传资源影响研究(SA-2012-03)
作者单位
宗亦臣 中国林业科学研究院林业研究所, 北京 100091 
李启岭 国家林业局科技发展中心, 北京 100714 
郑勇奇 中国林业科学研究院林业研究所, 北京 100091 
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中文摘要:
      《名古屋议定书》是由《生物多样性公约》衍生出的一个关于生物遗传资源利用的约定,它的签署对遗传资源大国和利用遗传资源大国在资源利用所产生惠益的分配上将起到积极的指导和规范作用。文中从林木遗传资源的视角探讨了《名古屋议定书》将对国内资源获取的影响。我国林木遗传资源是按所有权属分部门管理,按经营方式有国有、集体和个人等形式。目前,国内还没有针对遗传资源获取与惠益分享的法律法规。议定书的签署将有助于促进我国林木遗传资源法律法规的制订与完善,促进林木遗传资源保护和获取更加规范,有效遏制林木遗传资源的非法流失,促进林业新品种培育与保护更加完善和增加林木遗传资源提供者的收入。中国是重要的林木遗传资源提供国,同时又是遗传资源使用国。但是,我国在生物技术和产业研发方面尚处于起步阶段,短时间内难以达到发达国家遗传资源保护与利用的水平,因此建议"适时核准"。
英文摘要:
      Nagoya Protocol is a convention on bio-genetic resources utilization, which was born from the Convention on Biological Diversity, and its signing will play active supervising and regulating roles in the allocation of benefits from resources utilization between countries with rich genetic resources and the ones that use genetic resource. This paper discusses the impact of Nagoya Protocol on resources access in China from the perspective of forest tree genetic resources. In China, forest genetic resources are managed by different bodies on the ownership base. According to its production and management style, forest genetic resources have three types of ownership which include national, collective and personal ownership. There is no specific laws and regulations governing bio-genetic resources accessing and accordingly benefits sharing. The signing of Nagoya Protocol will promote the formulation and improvement of national laws and regulations on forest genetic resources, regulate the protection and accessing of the genetic resources, effectively prevent the illegal loss of these resources, boost the cultivation and protection of new plant varieties, and increase the income of provider of forest genetics. China is an important provider and user of genetic resource. But the research and development of bio-tech and industry are still at the infant stage, and it is difficult to achieve the protection and utilization level of developed countries. Therefore, it is recommended that the Chinese Government approve the protocol at due course.
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